LHC Machine

What  Where

A huge amount is going on.


Beam related accelerator components

Beam instrumentation: Canada, USA,...
Beam transfer, injection, extraction: Canada,...
Radio-frequency: Being put together, and tested at CERN... nice complicated stuff
Classical magnets: Russia, & Europe
Power converters: Built by industry (e.g collaboration with DANFYSIK, Denmark.), big and important but not very photogenic.
Dipole cold masses:
France (Alstom Jeumont S.A. - Belfort), Germany (Babcock Noell, Peter Ginter's been there ), Italy (Ansaldo Superconduttori).

The main item, 1232 plus spares 14.3 m long dipoles to be produced by European industry, huge technological challenge.
Final assembly process starts this year on-site with the first dipole going into the tunnel sometime in 2005

For  LHC dipoles there are 6 sites [thanks Gijs]: 
Alstom Jeumont contract: JEUMONT in JEUMONT (FR), ALSTOM in BELFORT (FR)
Ansaldo contract:  ANSALDO in Genua (IT)
Noell contract:   Noell in Zeitz (DE) or Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Alfred-Nobel-Str. 20, 97080 Würzburg

On these sites there are interesting shots possible around winding  machines, welding machines big 15 m presses etc.
At CERN: SM18 and SMA18 where dipoles are cryostated and tested.  For a visit he should, at least the first time, go together with a CERN  contact. For Jeumont and Alstom I know that the French military  security have to give there ok as they have 'other projects' on site.

Quadrupole cold masses: Built by industry, emergency program to do assembly at CERN. Photo opportunity.
Insertions: USA, Japan, major contribution, high precision, rigorous testing etc.
Correctors: India
Superconducting cable: Finland (630 km of cable see below) plus...
Coil winding:

Accelerator support systems

Accelerator cryogenics, cryogenic plants, supply lines, cryotechnology for the production and distribution of liquid helium

World's Coldest and Largest Fridge begins installation 2003
(The LHC cryogenic system is very large as well as very cold. Refrigeration power equivalent to over 140 kW at 4.5 K is distributed around the 27 km ring. In all, LHC cryogenics will need 40,000 leak-tight pipe junctions, 12 million litres of liquid nitrogen will be vaporised during the initial cool down of 31,000 tons of material and the total inventory of liquid helium will be 700,000 litres.)
Dipole Cryostats assembly and integration at CERN. Lots of pipes and wires. Photo opportunity.
Vacuum: pumps. beam screens, sector valves
Machine protection systems
Dosimetry - big contract going out, new technology for fast dose evaluation.


Civil engineering
Cooling and ventilation
Electrical distribution


(Photo opportunities)
Short straight sections at CERN
Dipoles: SM18
First LHC magnets lowered down into tunnel mid 2005
Final assembly SD12 and then transport down a big hole into the tunnel.


Cryogenic surface plants, installation of supply lines in tunnels (start 2003)
Main ring installation - HUGE, HUGE. Transport, plumbin', weldin', wirin'
Interconnect contract (i.e.) plumbing and wiring all the magnets together might go to Czech company
Piping: 200 km of piping to be installed by Italian company
Heavy handling, transport - a lot of big stuff is going to be moving around.
Survey and alignment


Magnet tests and analysis
String II
RF tests in SM18

Industrial issues

Breakdown of technologies at tech. transfer

Mechanical engineering
Surface treatment and materials
Electronics, fibres, controls etc.


Countries collaborating in the LHC project (including experiments) are Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan Republic, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan. background


Quads for cleaning insertions, 66 kV power converters for LHC injection, PFNs for LHC injection, LHC beam monitor electronics.


Novosibirsk is also supplying insertion magnets for the LHC ring. The Protvino laboratory is responsible for 18 extraction magnets and the circuit breakers that will receive the electronics from India. The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, is contributing a damping system, and a number of other Russian research centres will furnish a range of items and equipment, including design work, radiation studies, survey targets, ceramic components, busbars and shielding.


superconducting sextupole and decapole spool pieces amounting to half of the total LHC requirement for such corrector magnet equipment. In addition, India will supply LHC magnet support jacks and quench heater power supplies. Circuit breakers are being supplied by Russia, but India remains responsible for the necessary electronics.


Super conducting cable manufacture. Outokumpu's order includes more than 800 units, in other words about 630 kilometres of cable. The superconducting wires forming the cable are manufactured at the Superconductor unit of Outokumpu in Pori, Finland. The cabling will be subcontracted and made in Switzerland


The KEK national laboratory acts as a major coordinator for all of this work. Japan is the source of much of the basic material (steel and superconducting cable) for the LHC. A further significant Japanese contribution to the LHC is the 16 quadrupoles used to squeeze the colliding beams and boost the interaction rate. Also on the list of equipment are compressors for cooling superfluid helium.


Separation dipoles, insertion quadrupoles, inner triplet feedboxes, IR absorbers (TAN & TAS), Luminosity monitors

Europe: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland